sexta-feira, 17 de março de 2017

ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY

             

1. THE ADVERBS AND THE ADJECTIVES IN ENGLISH


Adjectives tell us something about a person or a thing. Adjectives can modify nouns (here: girl) or pronouns (here: she).
Adverbs tell us in what way someone does something. Adverbs can modify verbs (here: drive), adjectives or other adverbs.

adjectiveadverb
Mandy is a careful girl.Mandy drives carefully.
She is very careful.She drives carefully.

Mandy is a careful driver. This sentence is about Mandy, the driver, so use the adjective.
Mandy drives carefully. This sentence is about her way of driving, so use the adverb.


  1. Form
Adjective + -ly
adjectiveadverb
dangerousdangerously
carefulcarefully
nicenicely
horriblehorribly
easyeasily
electronicelectronically

Irregular forms:

adjectiveadverb
goodwell
fastfast
hardhard

If the adjective ends in -y, change -y to -i. Then add -ly:

  • happy– happily
but:

  • shy– shyly
If the adjective ends in -le, the adverb ends in -ly:

  • terrible– terribly
If the adjective ends in -e, then add -ly:

  • safe– safely
► Not all words ending in -ly are adverbs:

  • adjectives ending in-ly: friendly, silly, lonely, ugly
  • nouns, ending in-ly: ally, bully, Italy, melancholy
  • verbs, ending in-ly: apply, rely, supply
There is no adverb for an adjective ending in -ly.

3. USE OF ADVERBS


3.1. TO MODIFY VERBS

The handball team played badly last Saturday.

3.2. TO MODIFY ADJECTIVES

It was an extremely bad match.

3.3. TO MODIFY ADVERBS

The handball team played extremely badly last Wednesday.

3.4. TO MODIFY QUANTITIES

There are quite a lot of people here.

3.5. TO MODIFY SENTENCES

Unfortunatelythe flight to Dallas had been cancelled.

 4. TYPES OF ADVERBS


4.1. ADVERBS OF MANNER

  • quickly
  • kindly

4.2. ADVERBS OF DEGREE

  • very
  • rather

4.3. ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY

  • often
  • sometimes

4.4. ADVERBS OF TIME

  • now
  • today

4.5. ADVERBS OF PLACE

  • here
  • nowhere


5. HOW DO KNOW WHETHER TO USE AN ADJECTIVE OR AN ADVERB?


John is a careful driver. – In this sentences we say how John is – careful. If we want to say that the careful John did not drive the usual way yesterday – we have to use the adverb:

  • Johndid not drive carefully

Here is another example:

  • I am aslow  (How am I? → slow  adjective)
  • I walkslowly(Ho do I walk?  slowly  adverb)


6. ADJECTIVE OR ADVERB AFTER SPECIAL VERBS


Both adjectives and adverbs may be used after look, smell and taste. Mind the change in meaning.
Here are two examples:

adjectiveadverb
The pizza tastes good.
(How is the pizza?)
Jamie Oliver can taste well.
(How can Jamie Oliver taste?)
Peter’s feet smell bad.
(How are his feet?)
Peter can smell badly.
(How can Peter smell?)

Do not get confused with good/well.

  • Linda looksgood(What type of person is she?)
  • Linda lookswell(How is Linda? – She may have been ill, but now she is fit again.)
  • How are you? – I’mwell, thank you.

One can assume that in the second/third sentence the adverb well is used, but this is wrong – well can be an adjective (meaning fit/healthy), or an adverb of the adjective good.

CONCLUSION:


  • Use theadjective when you say something about the person
  • Use theadverb, when you want to say about the action.

Where do adverbs of frequency go?
Adverbs of frequency show you how often something happens. This can be always = 100%, or never = 0%.
  • always
  • usually
  • regularly
  • normally
  • often
  • sometimes
  • occasionally
  • rarely
  • seldom
  • never

These adverbs can go before the main verb.

SubjectAuxiliaryAdverb of frequencyVerbRest
Ialwaysget upat 6.45.
Petercanusuallyplayfootball on Sundays.
Mandyhassometimesgotlots of homework.

 or after a form of to be (am, are, is) – (was, were).

SubjectAuxiliaryAdverb of frequencyRest
Susanisneverlate.

The adverbs often, usually, sometimes and occasionally can go at the beginning of a sentence.

  • SometimesI go swimming.
  • Oftenwe surf the internet.

Somtimes these adverbs can go at the end of a sentence.

  • We read books occasionally.

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